Intro2 Study Guide
Author: Josh Hug and Kartik Kapur

Lecture Code

Code from this lecture available at


Client Programs and Main Methods. A Java program without a main method cannot be run using the java command. However, methods from one class can be invoked using the main method of another class. A java class that uses another class is called a client of that class.

Class Declaration. Java classes can contain methods and/or variables. We say that such methods and variables are “members” of the calss. Members can be instance members or static members. Static members are declared with the static keyword. Instance members are any members without the static keyword.

Class Instantiation. Instantiating a class is almost always done using the new keyword, e.g. Dog d = new Dog(). An instance of a class in Java is also called an Object.

Dot Notation. We access members of a class using dot notation, e.g. d.bark(). Class members can be accessed from within the same class or from other classes.

Constructors. Constructors tell Java what to do when a program tries to create an instance of a class, e.g. what it should do when it executes Dog d = new Dog().

Array Instantiation. Arrays are also instantiated using the new keyword. If we have an array of Objects, e.g. Dog[] dogarray, then each element of the array must also be instantiated separately.

Static vs. Instance methods. The distinction between static and instance methods is incredibly important. Instance methods are actions that can only be taken by an instance of the class (i.e. a specific object), whereas static methods are taken by the class itself. An instance method is invoked using a reference to a specific instance, e.g. d.bark(), whereas static methods should be invoked using the class name, e.g. Math.sqrt(). Know when to use each.

Static variables. Variables can also be static. Static variables should be accessed using the class name, e.g. Dog.binomen as opposed to d.binomen. Technically Java allows you to access using a specific instance, but we strongly encourage you not to do this to avoid confusion.

void methods. A method which does not return anything should be given a void return type.

The this keyword. Inside a method, we can use the this keyword to refer to the current instance.

public static void main(String[] args). We now know what each of these things means:

Command Line Arguments. Arguments can be provided by the operating system to your program as “command line arguments,” and can be accessed using the args parameter in main. For example if we call our program from the command line like this java ArgsDemo these are command line arguments, then the main method of ArgsDemo will have an array containing the Strings “these”, “are”, “command”, “line”, and “arguments”.

Using Libraries. There’s no need in the year 2017 to build everything yourself from scratch. In our course, you are allowed to and highly encouraged to use Java’s built-in libraries, as well as libraries that we provide, e.g. the Princeton standard library. You should not use libraries other than those provided or built into Java because it may render some of the assignments moot, and also our autograder won’t have access to these libraries and your code won’t work.

Getting Help from the Internet. You’re welcome to seek help online. However, you should always cite your sources, and you should not seek help on specific homework problems or projects. For example, googling “how convert String Java” or “how read file Java” are fine, but you should not be searching “project 2 61b java berkeley”.


C Level

  1. Complete the exercises from the online textbook.

    As noted in the lecture 1 study guide, we strongly encourage you to complete the optional HW0, which covers a bunch of basic Java syntax.

  2. In the below code what would the blank variable name have to be in order for the code to compile

     public class Human{
       int __________;
       public Human(int ________){
         eyes = ___________;

B level

  1. Below is the Dog class.

     public class Dog{
       public void bark(){
       public static void runFast(){
         System.out.println("Ruff Run");

    Which of the following lines, if any, would cause an error.

     Dog poppa = new Dog();